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UniverseView: Begin at the Planck Time and Planck Length, Use Base-2 Exponential Notation

Start At The Planck Time And Come Up To the Age Of The Universe
Start At The Planck Length And Come Out To The Observable Universe

Editor's Note: Early in December 2014 we started this page to follow-up our earlier work on just the Planck Length. We began that effort three years earlier (December 2011) in our local high school's geometry classes. Because we are still finding simple errors within the charts below, this page will be subject to frequent updates.

Background : We asked the question, "Has anyone done a progression of the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe using base-2 exponential notation (a fancy way of saying, multiplying by 2)?" We did it from the Planck Length to the Known Universe and have wanted to compare that to Planck Time.

Going from the smallest to the largest is a simple ordering logic. Using Max Planck's smallest possible measurements to go out to the known limits, seems like an exercise high school students should do. So, here we introduce the simple math from the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe.

In July 2014, Prof. Dr. Gerard 't Hooft and Stefan Vandoren published a very helpful book, Time in Powers of Ten, a base-10 chart. We were looking for a base-2 chart which would be 3.333+ times more granular. We could not find it anywhere so this page is our working draft, our starting point.

Perhaps it goes without saying... as you read this note, I appeal to you to ask questions and make comments and suggestions. Thank you. -Bruce Camber

Planck Time is the smallest possible unit of measurement of time. The calculations were done by Max Planck in and around 1899. These numbers are actual values. Any numbers smaller than the Planck Time are just numbers that cannot be applied to anything meaningfully.

Planck got his Nobel Prize in 1918 for his discovery of energy quanta. He was also a mentor and friend of Einstein (who received his Nobel Prize in 1921).

The Planck Length and Planck Time are actual values that can be multiplied by 2.
Of course, if one were to multiply each by 2 over and over again, you can assume that you would reach their outer limits. That process looks a bit tedious. After all, the Age of the Universe is somewhere over 13.8+ billion years and the Observable Universe is millions of light years from common sense. Yet, rather surprisingly, to complete that effort doesn't require thousands of doublings. It is done in somewhere just over 201+ doublings. That is so surprising, the doublings for both are charted below.

These doublings do kind-of, sort-of end up in synch. Where there is a problem, we assume it is within our simple math. Considering the duration and the length, and the nature of very large measurements, for all intents and purposes, they are synched mathematically. We've got a bit of work to do to synch them up intellectually!

Though these charts will be tweaked substantially, the best place to start is at the notations (or doublings) that define a day, a week and a year (in Planck Time units) to see how each corresponds with the distance light travels in Planck Length units, i.e. a light year, "light week," and "light day." These are our first baby steps of analysis. How many hundreds of steps are there to go to discern all the faces of its meaning? Who knows? From here, we will continue to look to see what meaning and relation evolves at a particular notation where one column appears to impart value to the other. Just on the surface, this chart seems to suggest that there are other possible views of the nature of space and time where order (sequence), continuity, symmetries, and relations seem to play a more fundamental role.

Science and our common sense worldview assume the primordial nature of space and time. As a result of our work with the Planck Units, we hold that conclusion up for further inspection. How do things appear as one begins to approach a synchronized Planck Length and Planck Time?

Planck Units: As we add more Planck Units to this chart, what else might we see? What might we learn? So, we will add mass, electric charge, and temperature to these listings. And then, we'll add the derived Planck Units (12) and then ask, "Is there anything more we can do to establish a range from the smallest to the largest? What might a comparative analysis at each doubling reveal to us?" We don't know, however, we are on a path to explore! We'll report in right here.

At this point, we are attempting to learn enough to make a few somewhat educated guesses about the nature of things within these scales of the universe.

So, as a result of where we are today, I think it is okay to ask the question, "What would the universe look like if space and time were derivative of order-continuity and relation-symmetry, and of ratios where the subject-object are constantly in tension?"

This stream of consciousness continues at the very bottom of this chart.





In Search of Foundations

All articles are always in process:
Beginnings: Did a Quiet Expansion precede a Big Bang?
Ethics-Morals-Values: Is there an inherent Goodness
within Science, Business, and Religion?

Finite or Infinite: Is That The Question? Part II
Paradigm Shift: Most-simple, integrated UniverseView
All Five Basic Planck Units Chart
Order-Continuity: Is There Order In The Universe?

Simplicity: Everything Starts Most Simply...
Tiling and Tessellating the Universe
Who, What, When, Where and Why:
What's happening here?

UniverseViews: An Overview

A Wiki-like Overview
• Our first page about this process in 2011
• Simple concept, simple beginnings
• Extremely small and extremely large numbers
• First principles & the concept of perfection
• Building Bridges

Our Quick Tour of the Universe

A short introduction
#1: The Planck Length
#2: The Range or Scale of the Universe
#3: Just by the width of a hair #4: Discover your child within
#5: From caveats to "mea culpas"
#6: Water, water everywhere
#7: Transition to the Human Scale
#8: An Unknown Section of the Universe
#9: Possible Transition to the Large Scale Universe
#10: The Observable Universe


First two charts from this research

Big Board - little universe, An Ongoing Work
Universe Table, An Ongoing Work


Longstanding documents:

• 2011: A little background story on December 19, 2011
• 2006: Belief Systems and Constants & Universals
• 2005: Expanded first principles
• 1995: First principles for the television show
• 1979: About the display under the dome at MIT
• 1979: Scholars chosen for the display of first principles

By the way, on May 10, 2010, the very smallest unit of measured time was experimentally demonstrated; the result was 1.2 × 10−17 seconds. That is a long way from 10−44 seconds! For more background, see: http://phys.org/news192909576.html

Planck Time Doublings: Primarily in Seconds

Planck Length Doublings: Primarily in Meters

204

The Age of the Universe: 13.78 to 13.8 billion years

8.310x1026 m or Future Universe

203

It appears that we are in the earliest part of 201 doubling:

4.155x1026 m or Near Future Universe

202

6.9309178x1017 seconds (21.9777+ billion years)

2.077x1026 m or in the range of the Observable Universe

201

346,545,888,147,200,000 seconds (10.9888+ billion years)

1.03885326x1026 m approaching the Observable Universe

200

173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds (5.49444+ billion years) (1017)

5.19426632x1025 m

199

86,636,472,036,800,000 seconds (2.747+ billion years)

2.59713316x1025 m

198

43,318,236,018,400,000 seconds (1.3736+ billion years)

1.29856658x1025 m

197

21,659,118,009,200,000 seconds (686.806+ million years)

6.49283305x1024 m

196

10,829,559,004,600,000 seconds (342.4+ million years) (1016)

3.24641644x1024 m

195

5,414,779,502,320,000 seconds (171.2+ million years)

1.62320822x1024 m

194

2,707,389,751,160,000 seconds (85.6+ million years)

8.11604112x1023 m

193

1,353,694,875,580,000 seconds (42.8+ million years) (1015)

4.05802056x1023 m

192

676,847,437,792,000 seconds (21.4+ million years)

2.02901033x1023 m

191

338,423,718,896,000 seconds (10.724+ million years)

1.01450514x1023 m

190

169,211,859,448,000 seconds (5.3+ million years) (1014)

5.07252568x1022 m

189

84,605,929,724,000 seconds (2.6+ million years)

2.5362629 x1022 m

188

42,302,964,862,000 seconds (1.3+ million years)

1.26813145 x1022 m

187

21,151,482,431,000 seconds (640+ thousand years)

6.34065727x1021 m

186

10,575,741,215,500 seconds (320+ thousand years) (1013)

3.17032864x1021 m or 3 Zettameters or 310,000 ly

185

5,287,870,607,760 seconds (160+ thousand years)

1.58516432x1021 m or about 150,000 ly (1.5z)

184

2,643,935,303,880 seconds (83.7+ thousand years)

7.92582136x1020 m

183

1,321,967,651,940 seconds (41.8+ thousand years) (1012)

3.96291068x1020 m

182

660,983,825,972 seconds (20.9+ thousand years)

1.981455338x1020 m

181

330,491,912,986 seconds (or about 10,472.9 years)

9.90727664x1019 meters

180

165,245,956,493 seconds (1011)

4.95363832x1019 m

179

82,622,978,246.4 seconds

2.47681916x1019 m

178

41,311,489,123.2 seconds

1.23840958x1019 m

177

20,655,744,561.6 seconds

6.19204792x1018 m

176

10,327,872,280.8 seconds (1010)

3.09602396x1018 m

175

5,163,936,140.4 seconds

1.54801198x1018 m

174

2,581,968,070.2 seconds

7.74005992x1017 m

173

1,290,984,035.1 seconds (109)

3.87002996x1017 m

172

645,492,017.552 seconds

1.93501504 x1017 m

171

322,746,008.776 seconds

9.67507488x1016 m

170

161,373,004.388 seconds (108)

4.83753744x1016 m

169

80,686,502.194 seconds

2.41876872x1016 m

168

40,343,251.097 sec (466 days)(Note: 31,536,000 s/year)

1.20938436x1016 m

Comments: A light year is about 9.4605284×1015 meters (Google) or 9,460,730,472,580,800 metres "exactly" (Wikipedia). Use the Gregorian calendar (circa 1582) where a year is 365.2425 and the speed of light is given as 299,792,458 metres/second, the calculation is 365.2425 times 86400 seconds/day (or 31556952 seconds/year) times 299,792,458 meters/second or 9.4605362+×1015 meters. Discrepancies would become quite large at the size of the Observable Universe and the Age of the Known Universe.

Using Planck Units:

---

One Light Year

9.45994265715×1015m

167

20,171,625.5485 seconds (233.468 days)

6.0469218x1015 m [one light year (ly) is 9.4x1015 m]

166

10,085,812.7742 seconds (116.73 days) (107)

3.0234609x1015 m

165

5,042,906.38712 seconds (58.36+)

1.5117305x1015 m

164

2,521,453.19356 s (29.1835 days)

7.55865224x1014 m

163

1,260,726.59678 s (14.59+ days) (106)

3.77932612x1014 m

162

630,363.29839 s (7.29+ days)

1.88966306x1014 m (about 7-day light travel)

161

315,181.649195 seconds (3.64794 days)

9.44831528x1013 m

160

157,590.824 s (1.82 days) (105)

4.72415764x1013 m

159

78,795.4122988 s (.911984 days)

2.36207882x1013 m (or close to 24-hour light travel)

158

39,397.7061494 seconds

1.18103945x1013 m

157

19,698.8530747 seconds (104)

5.90519726x1012 m

156

9849.42653735 seconds

2.95259863x1012 m ()

155

4924.71326867 seconds(3600 s in hour)

1.47629931x1012 m

154

2462.35663434 seconds

738,149,657 kilometers 1011

153

1231.17831717 seconds (103)

369,074,829 kilometers 1011

152

615.589158584 seconds (10.259+ minutes)

184,537,414 kilometers 1011

151

307.794579292 seconds

92,268,707.1 kilometers (range of earth-to-sun)1010m

150

153.897289646 seconds (102)

46,134,353.6 kilometers 1010

149

76.948644823 s (16+ sec over 1 min)

23,067,176.8 kilometers  1010

Comments: A light minute is, of course, sixty times 299,792.458 km/second. Again, using simple mathematics, the distance light travels in one minute is 17,987,547.48 which is about 1000 kilometers off of 17,986,420.0329 km/second using the simple mathematics of this chart. This difference will be further analyzed.

148

38.4743224115 s (21.53 sec to 1 min)

11,533,588.4 kilometers  1010

147

19.2371612058 seconds 101

5,766,794.2 kilometers 109

146

9.61858060288 seconds

2,883,397.1 kilometers 109

145

4.80929030144 seconds

1,441,698.55 kilometers 109 m

144

2.40464515072 seconds

720,849.264 kilometers 108

143

1.20232257536 s (1s ≠ perfect tp multiple)
One Second:

360,424.632 kilometers 108 meters
Speed of light equals 299,792,458 m/s

Comments: Science knows experimentally that light travels 299,792.458 km/second (a light second). Here it is confirmed using simple mathematics. To our knowledge, this is the first time it has been confirmed in this manner. Also, a Planck Time multiple, either 1.202 seconds or .6011 seconds, could be used as a standard unit of time that is based on a theoretical constant. We will explore further the calculations for a day, week, month and year based on such a system. We'll also explore it in light of recent work to define the theoretical chronon.

--- A Light Second 299,792.458 km

142

6.0116128768×10−1 seconds

180,212.316 kilometers (111,979+ miles) 108 m

141

3.0058064384×10−1 seconds

90,106.158 kilometers 107 m

140

1.5029032192×10−1 seconds

45,053.079 kilometers 107

139

7.514516096×10−2 seconds

22,526.5398 kilometers 107

138

3.757258048 × 10−2 seconds

11,263.2699 kilometers or about 7000 miles

137

1.878629024 × 10−2 seconds

5631.63496 kilometers 106

136

9.39314512 × 10−3 seconds

2815.81748 kilometers 106

The transition from the Human-Scale to the Large Scale Universe

135

4.69657256 × 10−3 seconds

1407.90874 kilometers (about 874 miles) 106 m

134

2.34828628 × 10−3 seconds

703.954368 kilometers 105

133

1.174143145978 × 10−3 seconds

351.977184 kilometers (218.7 miles) 105

132

5.8707157335 × 10−4 seconds

175.988592 kilometers (109.35 miles) 105

131

2.93535786675 × 10−4 seconds

87.994296 kilometers 104

130

1.46767893338 × 10−4 seconds

43.997148 kilometers 104

129

7.33839466688 × 10−5 seconds

21.998574 kilometers104

128

3.66919733344 × 10−5 seconds

10.999287 kilometers or within 6.83464 miles 104

127

1.83459866672× 10−5 seconds

5.49964348 kilometers 103

126

9.1729933336 × 10−6 seconds

2.74982174 kilometers 103

125

4.5864966668 × 10−6 seconds

1.37491087 kilometers 103

124

2.2932483334 × 10−6 seconds

687.455439 meters 102

123

1.1466241667 × 10−6 seconds

343.72772 meters or about 1128 feet 102

122

5.73312083348 × 10−7 seconds

171.86386 meters or about 563 feet 102

121

2.86656041674 × 10−7 seconds

85.9319296 meters 101

120

1.43328020837 × 10−7 s

42.9659648 meters 101

119

7.16640104186 × 10−8 sec

21.4829824 meters 101

118

3.58320052093 × 10−8 sec

10.7414912 meters or 35.24 feet or 1.074x101 m 100

117

1.79160026046 × 10−8 seconds

5.3707456 meters 100

116

8.95800130232 × 10−9 seconds

2.6853728 meters or 105.723 inches 100

115

4.47900065116 × 10−9 seconds

1.3426864 meters or 52.86 inches 100

114

2.23950032558 × 10−9 seconds

67.1343176 cm (19.68+ inches or 6.71x10-1

113

1.11975016279 × 10−9 seconds

33.5671588 centimeters or 3.356x10-1 m)

112

5.59875081396 × 10−10 seconds

16.7835794 centimeters or 1.6783x10-1

111

2.79937540698 × 10−10 seconds

8.39178968 cm (3.3+ inches or 8.39x10-2 m)

110

1.39968770349 × 10−10 seconds

4.19589484 centimeters 4.19589484x10-2 m

109

6.99843851744 × 10−11 seconds

2.09794742 centimeters or 2.0979x10-2 m

108

3.49921925872 × 10−11 seconds

1.04897 centimeters or 1.04897375x10-2 m

107

1.74960962936 × 10−11 seconds

5.24486856 mm (about 1/4 inch) or 5.24x10-3 m

106

8.7480481468 × 10−12 seconds

2.62243428 millimeters or 2.62243428x10-3 m

105

4.3740240734 × 10−12 seconds

1.31121714 millimeters 1.31121714x10-3 m

104

2.1870120367 ×10−12 seconds

.655608568 millimeters or 6.55608568x10-4 m

103

1.09350601835 ×10−12 seconds

.327804284 millimeter or 3.27804284 x10-4 m

102

5.46753009176 ×10−13 seconds

.163902142 millimeters or 1.63902142x10-4 m

101

2.73376504588 × 10−13 seconds

81.9510712 microns or 81.9510712 x10-5 m

100

1.36688252294 × 10−13 seconds

40.9755356 microns or 4.09755356 x10-5 m

99

6.83441261472 × 10−14 seconds

20.4877678 microns or 2.04877678x10-5 m

98

3.41720630736 × 10−14 seconds

10.2438839 microns or 1.02438839x10-5 m

97

1.70860315368 × 10−14 seconds

5.12194196 microns (.0002+ inches or 5.12x10-6 m)

96

8.5430157684 × 10−15 seconds

2.56097098 microns or 2.56097098x10-6 m

95

4.2715078842 × 10−15 seconds

1.28048549 microns or 1.2804854x10-6 m

94

2.1357539421 × 10−15 seconds

640.242744 nanometers 6.40242744x10-7m

93

1.06787697105 × 10−15 seconds

320.121372 nanometers 3.20121372x10-7 m

92

5.33938485524 × 10−16 seconds

160.060686 nanometers or 1.60x10-7 m

91

2.66969242762 × 10−16 seconds

80.0303432 nanometers or 8.00x10-8 m

90

1.33484621381 × 10−16 seconds

40.0151716 nanometers or 4.00x10-8 m

89

6.67423106904 × 10−17 seconds

20.0075858 nanometers or 2.00x10-8 m

88

3.33711553452 × 10−17 seconds

1.00037929x10-8 meters or 10 nanometers

87

1.66855776 × 10−17 seconds (smallest measurement - 2010)

5.00189644x10-9 meters

86

8.34278883632 × 10−18 seconds

2.50094822 nanometers or 2.50094822x10-9 m

85

4.17139441816 × 10−18 seconds

1.25474112 nanometers or 1.25x10-9 m

84

2.08569720908 × 10−18 seconds

.625237056 nanometers or 6.25237056x10-10 m

83

1.04284860454 × 10−18 seconds

.312618528 nanometers or 3.12x10-10 m

82

5.21424302272 × 10−19 seconds

.156309264 nanometers or 1.563x10-10 m

81

2.60712151136 × 10−19 seconds

7.81546348x10-11 m

80

1.30356075568 × 10−19 seconds

3.90773174x10-11 m

79

6.5178037784 × 10−20 seconds

1.95386587x10-11 m

78

3.2589018892 × 10−20 seconds

9.76932936x10-12 m

77

1.6294509446 × 10−20 seconds

4.88466468x10-12 m

76

8.147254723 × 10−21 seconds

2.44233234x10-12 m

75

4.0736273615 × 10−21 seconds

1.22116617x10-12 m

74

2.03681368075 × 10−21 seconds

6.10583084x10-13 m

73

1.01840684038 × 10−21 seconds

3.05291542x10-13 m

72

5.09203420188 × 10−22 seconds

1.52645771x10-13 m

71

2.54601710094 × 10−22 seconds

7.63228856x10-14 m

70

1.27300855047 × 10−22 seconds

3.81614428x10-14 m

69

6.36504275236 × 10−23 seconds

1.90807214x10-14 m

68

3.18252137618 × 10−23 seconds

9.54036072x10-15 m

Transition from the Small-Scale Universe to the Human-Scale Universe

67

1.59126068809 × 10−23 seconds

4.77018036x10-15 m

66

7.95630344044 × 10−24 seconds

2.38509018x10-15 m

65

3.97815172022 × 10−24 seconds

1.19254509x10-15 m

64

1.98907586011 × 10−24 seconds

5.96272544x10-16 m

63

9.94537930056 × 10−25 seconds

2.98136272x10-16 m

62

4.97268965028 × 10−25 seconds

1.49068136x10-16 m

61

2.48634482514 × 10−25 seconds

7.45340678x10-17 m

60

1.24317241257 × 10−25 seconds

3.72670339x10-17 m

59

6.21586206284 × 10−26 seconds

1.86335169x10-17 m

58

3.10793103142 × 10−26 seconds

9.31675848x10-18 m

57

1.55396551571 × 10−26 seconds

4.65837924x10-18 m

56

7.76982757856 × 10−27 seconds

2.32918962x10-18 m

55

3.88491378928 × 10−27 seconds

1.16459481x10-18 m

54

1.94245689464 × 10−27 seconds

5.82297404x10-19 m

53

9.7122844732 × 10−28 seconds

2.91148702x10-19 m

52

4.8561422366 × 10−28 seconds

1.45574351x10-19 m

51

2.4280711183 × 10−28 seconds

7.27871756x10-20 m

50

1.21403555915 × 10−28 seconds

3.63935878x10-20 m

49

6.07017779576 × 10−29 seconds

1.81967939x10-20 m

48

3.03508889788 × 10−29 seconds

9.09839696x10-21 m

47

1.51754444894 × 10−29 seconds

4.54919848x10-21 m

46

7.58772224468 × 10−30 seconds

2.27459924x10-21 m

45

3.79386112234 × 10−30 seconds

1.13729962x10-21 m

44

1.89693056117 × 10−30 seconds

5.68649812x10-22 m

43

9.48465280584 × 10−31 seconds

2.84324906x10-22 m

42

4.74232640292 × 10−31 seconds

1.42162453x10-22 m

41

2.37116320146 × 10−31 seconds

7.10812264x10-23 m

40

1.18558160073 × 10−31 seconds

3.55406132x10-23 m

39

5.92790800364 × 10−32 seconds

8.88515328x10-24m

38

2.96395400182 × 10−32 seconds

4.44257664x10-24 m

37

1.48197700091 × 10−32 seconds

2.22128832x10-24m

36

7.40988500456 × 10−33 seconds

1.11064416x10-24m

35

3.70494250228 × 10−33 seconds

5.5532208x10-25m

34

1.85247125114 × 10−33 seconds

2.7766104x10-25m

33

9.26235625568 × 10−34 seconds

1.3883052x10-25m

32

4.63117812784× 10−34 seconds

6.94152599x10-26m

31

1.15779453196× 10−34 seconds

3.47076299x10-26m

30

5.78897265978 × 10−35 seconds

1.735381494x10-26 m

29

2.89448632989 × 10−35 seconds

8.67690749x10-27 m

28

1.44724316494 × 10−35 seconds

4.3384537x10-27 m

27

7.23621582472 × 10-36 seconds

2.16922687x10-27 m

26

3.61810791236 × 10−36 seconds

1.0846134x10-27 m

25

1.80905395618 × 10−36 seconds

5.42306718x10-28 m

24

9.045269781089 × 10−37 seconds

2.711533591x10-28 m

23

4.522263489044 × 10−37 seconds

1.35576679x10-28 m

22

2.26131744522 × 10−37 seconds

6.77883397x10-29 m

21

1.13065872261 × 10−37 seconds

3.38941698x10-29 meters

20

5.65329361306 × 10−38 seconds

1.69470849x10-29 meters

19

2.82646806528 ×10−38 seconds

8.47354247x10-30 meters

18

1.41323403264 ×10−38 seconds

4.2367712x10-30 m

17

7.0661701632 × 10−39 seconds

2.11838561x10-30 m

16

3.530850816 × 10−39 seconds

1.05919280x10-30 m

15

1.7665425408 × 10−39 seconds

5.29596404x10-31 m

14

8.832712704 × 10−40seconds

2.64798202x10-31 m

13

4.416356352 × 10−40 seconds

1.32399101x10-31 m

12

2.208178176 × 10−40 seconds

6.6199550x10-32 m

m

11

1.104089088 × 10−40 seconds

3.30997752x10-32 m

10

5.52044544 × 10−41 seconds

1.65498876x10-32 m

9

2.76022272 × 10−41 seconds

8.27494384x10-33 m

8

1.38011136 × 10−41 seconds

4.1374719232x10-33 m

7

6.9005568 × 10−42 seconds

2.0687359616x10-33 m

6

3.4502784 × 10−42 seconds

1.03436798x10-33 m

5

1.7251392 × 10−42 seconds

5.17183990x10-34 m

4

8.625696 × 10−43 seconds

2.58591995x10-34 m

3

4.312848 × 10−43 seconds

1.29295997x10-34 m

2

2.156424 × 10−43 s The second doubling

6.46479988×10-35 meters

1

1.078212 × 10−43 s The first doubling

3.23239994×10-35 m The first doubling, step, or layer.

5.39106(32)×10−44 seconds 1.616199(97)x10-35 meters

The Planck Time

The Planck Length

Endnotes:

1. We are in the process of refining this chart and will be throughout 2015 and 2016.

2. Our very first calculation with the Planck Length column (December 2011), resulted in 209 doublings! We found several errors. Then , with help of a NASA astrophysicist, Joe Kolecki (now retired), we updated our postings with his calculation of 202.34. Then, a French Observatory astrophysicist, Jean-Pierre Luminet, calculated 205.1 doublings. We are very open to all ideas and efforts! We are studying the foundations of foundations. One might call it a hypostatic science based on the simplest mathematics, simple geometries and observations about the way the universe coheres.

One might say, "The Finite is finite, the Infinite is the Infinite, and the constants and universals describe the boundary conditions and transformations between each. One manifests a panoply of perfections; the other has only momentary instants of perfection."

Open Questions:

What is a second?

What are Planck Units?

What is time?

What is a meter?

What is length?

What is space?

What happens just before the Planck time at 10-44 seconds? Theorists say that all of the four fundamental forces are presumed to have been unified into one force. All matter, energy, space and time "explode" from the original singularity.

3. Our online "Google" calculator often rounds up the last digit. It is usually beyond the eleventh postion to the right of the decimal point.

4. For more about this place and time, go to Hyperphysics (Georgia State): http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/astro/planck.html

5. A copy of this chart has also been published in the following locations:

a. http://walktheplanck.wordpress.com/2014/12/09/base/

b. http://utable.wordpress.com/2014/12/12/planck/

c. http://SmallBusinessSchool.org/page3053.html

d. ResearchGate Documents: 3052, 3054, 3056