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Simple is simple

"Behind it all is surely an idea so simple,  so beautiful,  that when we grasp it
— in a decade, a century, or a millennium — we will all say to each other, how
could it have been otherwise? How could we have been so stupid for so long?"
John Archibald Wheeler, 1911-2008, physicist,"How Come the Quantum?"
from "New Techniques and Ideas in Quantum Measurement Theory"
Annals  of  the  New  York  Academy  of  Sciences,
Volume 480, December 1986 (p. 304 of 304–316)

DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1986.tb12434.x



A Simple View of the Universe

Key question: Is a simple mathematical and geometrical view of the Universe meaningful or useful?
The goal of this article: Try to open a dialogue about the question
.

___________________

Initially posted:  Late July 2015. This article is not quite a FIRST DRAFT.  There are still many potholes and there is work to do on the endnotes and footnotes. Also visit: http://SmallBusinessSchool.org/page2979.html and this article within LinkedIn. -BEC

Navigation notes: Cursor over any link and it may pop up a very small summary window. You will discover that clicking on links that are in brackets [ ] go to the bottom of this page. Unbracketed links open a new window. Unacknowledged links are for us (our bread crumbs).

___________________

Back in December 2011 we began our work on a very simple mathematical model of the universe that was playfully dubbed,
Big Board-little universe.1 We had started using the following parameters -- base-2 exponential and scientific notation,2 the Planck base units,3 and Platonic solids4   -- in ways that created heretofore unobserved boundary conditions.

Our Three Initial Conditions

1. A basic chart.[5] There are just 201+ base-2 exponential notations from the base Planck units of Length and Time to the Observable Universe and Age of the Universe respectively. In our chart these two base Planck units tracked together in informative ways and raised many questions. Here the operative function was multiplication by 2 while the two base Planck units were the known properties being multiplied. The notations took on a diversity of names depending on the functional qualities we were observing.  A notation could be a cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer and/or set. The known universe was defined from about the 65th notation to the 201st to 202nd doublings. A largely-undefined, very small-scale part of the universe was given a simple mathematical structure from the 1st to 65th doubling.

2. Geometries.[6] We imputed a pervasive, simple geometry throughout the universe. This project started within our high school geometry classes by going inside the simple tetrahedron by dividing the edges by 2 and by connecting those new vertices.6a We could see four half-sized tetrahedrons in each corner and an octahedron perfectly in the middle. We then went inside the octahedron and found six half-sized octahedrons in each corner and a tetrahedron within each face (8). With just these two Platonic solids, we could tile and tessellate each layer and between layers or doublings throughout the entire model.6b Our geometry classes were exploring the question, "How far could we go deep within the simple tetrahedral-octahedral structure?" Then we asked, "How far out can we go by continuously doubling what we had?" It was here we began to learn that this progression is called base-2 exponential notation. Academically,  the tetrahedral-octahedral structure has been largely limited to chemistry and the analysis of silicates, cobalt, anitferromagnetism, and network structure and framework bonds.

Our initial structures were all three-dimensional. When we found many two-dimensional plates across all the notations, coherence throughout the universe seemed possible.

The cross-notational plates were quickly recognized within nature. The one with just hexagons was an easy analogue of graphene.7  Within manifold geometries, the analogue would be to fullerenes.8

Although there is no evidence that these analogical constructions exist within every layer, we imputed, hypostatized, or hypothesized that in some manner of speaking, such analogues do exist, especially within the first 60 doublings. We could then ask the question, "Given this ubiquitous, four-dimensional web (continuum, matrix, grid), why does the universe work in the manner that it does?" In looking for answers, we have begun to see a means to attract, relate, bind, break or repel constructions within each, and between each, of the 201+ notations.

3. Logic.[9] Our current chart redefines the continuity function to start with the infinitesimally small measurements, the base Planck units, and go out to their largest possible measurements using the Observable Universe and the Age of the Universe as the primary outer limits9a. Though imputed, this continuity function became our first principle for order in the universe9b yet it took the Big Board-little universe charts and images to begin to see the universe as a natural container for space and time.

As a container with a definitive beginning and current limits, the weight of logic seems to favor the conclusion that the universe is finite. That quickly raises questions about the infinite, "If it is not defined by space and time, how is it defined?"

Within the tilings and tessellations of our pervasive-but-simple geometries and with our base-2 expansion from the base Planck units, we began finding an extraordinary diversity of possible symmetries and potential relations. We asked, "Could symmetry-making and symmetry-breaking through time be the basis for all dynamics? Could the illusive harmony be a perfection of those symmetries within a moment in time?" Unto itself, this logic seemed to become its own system of value and for valuations."9c Perhaps the very nature of space and time is derivative; and, order-relations-dynamics and their three functional qualities, continuity, symmetry and harmony, somehow constitute the infinite and are infinite."

This simple logic became an important building block to postulate our first principles. Our charts had become a model of the known and unknown universe.

Who? What? Why? When? Where? How?

4. History. [10] This integrated universe model must now be tested within the history of logic, mathematics, philosophy and physics. Any model, if it is to have a place within the work of scholars, must be critically analyzed. And, we know this model has a long way to go. It must address very basic related questions about duality,11 finite and infinite sets,12 group theory,13 set theory,14 then advanced mathematical concepts that seem to be necessarily related like advanced combinatorics,15 matroids16 amplituhedrons,17 and the Buckingham pi theorem.18 Like breadcrumbs, these topics will be followed in the near future.

We are still within a very young and naive stage in our development and there are many very-very basic questions to explore:

•  Who are the players -- the scientists and mathematicians -- who are experts within this small-scale domain?
•  What are the "somethings" that are doubling within each notation?
•  Why has this potentially new domain of science been so totally ignored?
•  When does simple logic and simplicity itself override experimental data?
•  Where are the indicators that there is a domain that gives rise to gluons, hadrons, and the rest of the particle zoo?
•  How do the doublings of space and time work to become the container within which those somethings begin to expand?
•  Does the Michaelson-Morley experiment19 provide insights from their historic quest to define the aether?
•  Does this small-scale domain have anything to do with the continuum (Cyclic Conformal Cosmology) that was proposed by Roger Penrose20 of Oxford?
•  Is it the matrix or grid that Frank Wilczek21 (MIT) delineates? Why? How?
•  Could our small-scale universe be all of the above?
•  Thinking about CERN and their current research from quarks to gluons,22 how does this small-scale universe work in such a manner to give rise to the impeccable successes of the Standard Model23 and CERN's confirmation of tetraquarks24 and pentaquarks?25
•  Might this small-scale domain be the basis for homogeneity26 and isotropy27 in the universe? How does dimensional analysis and dimensional homogeneity28 apply?
•  If so, then what does it infer about the most distant objects from the Hubble Space Telescope?

These are some of the subjects (or objects)29 that occupy our attention and focus our time. "Let's go over the details just one more time to attempt to learn how this model provides new footings and foundations that could give rise to some of our current perceptions and accepted models and theories.

Calculations, Measurements and Observations

5. A starting point or domain or ...[30] The key question is, "What is being measured? Something is being doubled within each notation that is defined by the Planck base units. First, we assume the singularity28 (the Void) of these base units, yet, we now ask, "What happens within that first doubling? What gets doubled?"  ...only natural units? These are always based solely on universal dimensionless physical constants. But, all of them? Some of them? If so, which come into play and when do they come into play and why do they come into play? There are many books and articles about these constants, however, we cite just one as our primary reference -- Wilczek et al -- 31 dimensionless physical constants identified (PDF).31

The Planck Length (space) and Planck Time are two of the 31. Now we begin a journey with the work of experts with each constant.  Perhaps will begin to see how our two base units create a nondimensionalized plenum32 and vinculum33 so an "archetype" of mass(kg)34 and electric charge (q)35  begin to manifest and we begin to discern how the parameterizing functions of the Planck constant (h),36 including the speed of light in vacuum (c),37 the gravitational constant (G),38, the electric constant (ε0)39 and the elementary charge (e).40 come in to play.  We assume somewhere along our progression of doublings, the fine-structure constant (α)41 will present itself as will all the other dimensionless constants.

So, to focus on the very first doubling, we ask, "What is manifest?" First, we have the actual calculations by Max Planck for length, time, mass and electric charge. "How are these manifest?" Though infinitesimal, there is a manifestation of something.

Our first assumption is that the "somethings" could be either simple vertices or what are known as point-free vertices. More study is required.  We are told by Freeman Dyson42 that we should be using dimensional analysis and scaling laws to count the vertices within base-2 exponential notation; thus, we should be multiplying the number of vertices by 8. If so, there would be eight vertices with the first doubling.

Notwithstanding, when we more fully understand these scaling laws, dimensional analysis and point-free vertices that figure could actually increase.  It will not get smaller!

With the second doubling we have the simple calculations -- multiplying by 2 -- of base Planck units of length, time, mass and electric charge. Then we have the scaling number or 64 vertices. To observe this progression, we will eventually make a chart for our base units to the 65th notation. The first twenty doublings tell a story:

Notations:   Doublings:  Scalings (of vertices):
0 0 0
1 2 8
2 4 64
3 8 512
4 16 4096 (thousands) (3)
5 32 32,768
6 64 262,144
7 138 2,097,152 (millions) (6)
8 256   16,777,216
9 512 134,217,728
10 1024 1,073,741,824 (billions) (9)
11 2048 8,589,934,592
12 4096 68,719,476,736
13 8192 549,755,813,888
14 16,384 4,398,046,511,104 (trillions) (12)
15 32,768 35,184,372,088,832
16 65,536 281,474,976,710,656
17 131,072 2,251,799,813,685,248 (quadrillions) (15)
18 262,144 18,014,398,509,481,984
19 524,288 144,115,188,075,855,872
20 1,048,576 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 (quintillions)  (18)

With every one of the 31 dimensionless constants, a guess will be made to see what happens to the number within each doubling. We will watch the simple logic of each doubling, especially between the 60th and the 70th doublings. When does that number punch out and become something that is reduced to practice?   Or, in what notation does a dimensionless constant become manifest?

By the 20th notation, our vertex figure using dimensional analysis is up to an exabyte, the same number as 2-to-the-65th or 1.1529 quintillion vertices. We can see therefore that count continues out to 54 places (18 x 3) by the 60th notation. These numbers are so far beyond "large numbers" that it may seem meaningless. Certainly we all need to begin getting accustomed to very large and very small numbers! It seems that we could  conclude that with so many vertices there is enough potential structure to undergird every part of the Standard Model.

Anything and everything seems possible.

6. Identity: Humanity at the center of this model of the universe.[43] In December 2014, when we tracked the Planck Time next to the Planck Length, we found 201.264+ notations. Our very first chart in December of 2011 had 209 notations. We did not know where to stop. A NASA scientist44 helped us; he calculated 202.34 notations. Then a prominent French astrophysicist45 who did a calculation of 205 notations (See footnote 5).

From the 100th to 103rd notations we find sperm, hair, the thickness of today's paper from a book or magazine, and the human egg, clearly a few of the basics that evolve to become humanity. And, of course, we recognize that there are many other objects within these four notations. Yet, within its simplicity, there was a quiet affirmation, "Perhaps we, the swarming sea of humanity, are not irrelevant. This model places us squarely in the middle of it all."

7. The small-scale, human-scale, and large-scale Universe.[46] We then divided our chart of the Big Board - little universe by three so each scale would ideally have just over 67 notations. Following a longstanding convention within scholarship, we call these the small-scale universe, the human-scale universe and the large-scale universe.

The small-scale universe ranges from the singularity of the Planck base units to notations 67 and 68. Within the 66th and 67th notations, protons, fermions and neutrons are indexed. Leptons, quarks may well be within the 64th and 65th domain. Some posit them at much smaller sizes. But, the measuring tape is mathematics and it is oblique mathematics to be sure. Common elements of the aluminum and helium atoms show up in the 68th notation.

This human-scale universe ranges from the 68th notation to the 135th notation. There have been times when we have been boldly speculative, perhaps just imaginative, thinking about the transition from the human scale to the large scale.

The large-scale universe ranges from the 135th notation to just over the 201st notation. Not just the domain for governments anymore, here the truly imaginative, speculative, and bold have gone where others would fear and tremble.

These three scales provide the second most-simple division of the universe and by studying the transitions between each, we will engage combinatorial mathematics, group theory and set theory in fundamentally new ways. The continuity conditions are redefined. Symmetry functions are expanded. And, there is a possibility of understanding something new about the harmony of the universe (see Pythagoras,47 Plato,48 Aristotle,49 Kepler,50 Newton51 and Leibniz52).

We have begun to analyze other progressions or scales based on fourths, fifths sixths, and so on. In time, we may find something of interest.

8.  Numbers and Operands.[53] From Sequential Real Numbers, to Base-2 exponential notation, and then to Dimensional Analysis. We have observed how the simple mathematics of both base-2 and dimensional analysis become unwieldy rather quickly by the 60th and 21st notations respectively. Virtually every day we say, "We need to go over this one more time. It seems that we are missing something."

First, the notations (doublings or steps) are sequentially ordered, 1 to just over 201. What is that sequence? Is there any possibility that it could be related to the Fibonacci sequence?  What is the very nature of addition?

Next, there is multiplication, division, and ratios.  A former NIST scientist and mathematics professor at Brown, Philip Davis, cautioned that the circle and sphere are more simple than the tetrahedron. Of course, he is right. We are now learning more  about cubic-close packing (ccp) and the world of pi. Within the first notation with its eight vertices, we now know that we have to understand ccp and anticipate that the entire small-scale universe is driven by ccp. That will be an article in the near future.

At the top of this article is a quote from John Archibald Wheeler who was thinking about the standards for measurement within quantum mechanics.  If Pi drives this small scale universe, we know Pi is an irrational number and transcendental number that never ends and never repeats. It gives each construction those qualities, and those qualities reflect an essence of quantum mechanics; we expect there is a lot to chase down here.

Also, one of the most simple ccp configurations will be the pentastar with seven vertices in the form of five tetrahedrons.  There is a 7.38° (7° 21′) gap that we have called squishy-or-quantum geometry;  here are degrees of freedom that continue within the icosahedron (20 tetrahedral structure) and the pentagonal dodecahedron (60 tetrahedral structure). What is it all about?  We are not sure, but we do know it is worth more study.   

There are many notations as those Planck base units are being multiplied by 2,  that raise questions.  We say, "There are doctoral dissertations in there!"  It is within our scope of work. 

Then it came time to ask, "What has over a quintillion units of something?" Today, we have answered, "Vertices or point-free vertices." Are there any other possibilities?

What are the key operands? It seems that a vertex is a reasonable answer.  It is a special kind of point defined by axioms, and these have no "...length,54 area,55 volume,56 or any other dimensional attributes57 Yet, within our logic these points give functional capabilities to continuity, symmetry and harmony. And, these points have within them the conditions for order, relations and dynamics. 

The universe is taken as a whole.  It is all complete, integrated, where the historic is the current, the here and now.

Thank you.

Bruce Camber

Afterthoughts:

  •  At some notation, the geometries, logic, and all the somethings of the universe, must begin sharing a common space and time and as we approach the first doubling, everything shares it.  We assume this shared space begins somewhere between the 60th and 67th notation.  We call this domain, hypostatic,58 because it provides a working foundation for everything everywhere for all time.
  • These observations and possible conclusions will be revisited often.
  • The model works as a simple Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM)59 tool; it organizes data in a robust way and it opens many new doors for exploration.  That seems to be a worthwhile use of our time.
  • Part of this project began in 1979 at MIT.60


Endnotes (To return to the article, click on the number between the two bars [ ].)

[5] Four key charts:

[6] The Platonic Solids: The simple geometries still hold new insights

[9] A Simple Logic: Continuity, symmetry and harmony

[10] History within Logic, Mathematics, Philosophy, and Physics:

[30] Starting Points:

[43] Identity: Humanity at the center of this model of the universe.

[46] Three Scales of the Universe: Small Medium and Large

[53] Numbers and Operands

_____________

Note on simplicity:

Definitions (partial listing):
1. Not hard to understand or do.
2. Having few parts
3. Not complex or fancy.  Plain, basic, not special or unusual.
4. The fundamental and straightforward nature of something.
5. A group with no proper subgroup.
6. Composed of a single element, not a compound.

Cultural Flavoring:
KISS:  "Keep It Simply-Simple."
Camber Flavoring:
Everything starts simply.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simplicity

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

"Either science is irrational [in the way it judges theories and predictions probable] or the principle of simplicity is a fundamental synthetic a priori truth." -Swinburne , Oxford1997.

http://lawsofsimplicity.com/

http://www.maedastudio.com/index.php

http://www.fastcompany.com/56804/beauty-simplicity 

An example of complexity

""The Schwarzschild radius appearing in the spheristatic solution of the Einstein equations as the radius of the singular surface determined by the gravitational potential given by the time-time component of the covariant, symmetric, 2nd rank, gravimetric tensor -- (formula 1) -- which relates any mass m to a length ls (m) at the singularity by (formula 2),thus relating mass linearly to length, while the reduced Compton wavelength relates any mass unit to a length unit by Compton wavelength."

              1
Formula 1:    g44 = -----------------------
            ( 1 - (G0/c2) (m/r) )

Formula 2: ls(m) = (G0/c2) m

Key words:

1. The Schwarzschild radius




 (a) isotropy and homogeneity, homogeneity and isotropy

(b) all notations exist and necessarily are interdependent

Speculations:  Ratios and numbers, open-and-closed systems,, and sleep and dreams. Currently our working hypothesis is that the structure of the small-scale universe with its pervasive geometries is (1) the place of sleep and dreams and of eidetic and archetypal insights, and (2) the basis for the homogeneous and isotropic universe. It is the abiding infrastructure of all that is.

This infrastructure is not the just domain of physics.  Although where space-and-time gets its structures and essence, its power only begins to manifest in the transition from the small-scale to the human-scale universe.

The time intervals... 

A system would be considered open when there is inter-notational relations that can be defined.

When the focus is strictly intra-notational, the system would be considered closed...

The guess is that numbers become ratios when working across notations and they are reduced to an actual number within a notation.  

Numbers unto themselves are also open or closed. Open numbers are continuous; they are held in a tension known as a ratio. Close numbers are are whole and real numbers...

Pi, Phi, and the Pentastar, and Perfections. The nature of number, the nature of ratios. The nature of the fundamental constants.

Every kind of number must be accounted for...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_types_of_numbers


There are many key assumptions.

1.  We will assume that the logic within each domain and between each domain will be consistent and analogous.

Ratios and numbers, open-and-closed systems, homogeneity and isotropy, and sleep and dreams. Currently our working hypothesis is that the structure of the small-scale universe with its pervasive geometries is (1) the place of sleep and dreams and of eidetic and archetypal insights, and (2) the basis for the homogeneous and isotropic universe. It is the abiding infrastructure of all that is.

This infrastructure is not the just domain of physics.  Although where space-and-time gets its structures and essence, its power only begins to manifest in the transition from the small-scale to the human-scale universe.

The time intervals... 

A system would be considered open when there is inter-notational relations that can be defined.

When the focus is strictly intra-notational, the system would be considered closed...

The guess is that numbers become ratios when working across notations and they are reduced to an actual number within a notation.  

Numbers unto themselves are also open or closed. Open numbers are continuous; they are held in a tension known as a ratio. Close numbers are are whole and real numbers...

Pi, Phi, and the Pentastar, and Perfections. The nature of number, the nature of ratios. The nature of the fundamental constants.

Every kind of number must be accounted for...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_types_of_numbers


2.  We will assume that the three transitions, one at the start bridging the finite and infinite and one each between each scale, will be distinctive but analogous.

Science backed into a corner of complexity.

Do you know anything that naturally begins in its very earliest stages with open questions and a lot of complexity? If so, let us closely examine those examples. Our challenge will be to posit a more simple start. It appears that only humans think complexity is a natural state of being. Think now of the Big Bang Theory in cosmology and astrophysics and the Standard Model within physics. 

Philosophy and religion already backed into their corners of complexity.

Throughout recorded history, every religion begins with a simple insight and set of guidelines, then something happens; call it, Rules & Regulations. Those standards and procedures become increasingly complex. And, even with the simplest explanation of just one procedure, so much is assumed . People of that day say of that which is assumed, "That's just common sense."

Our goal is to get inside both the assumed and the commonsense to see what we are missing.

Data, Information, Knowledge, Insight, and Wisdom....

There is a simple progression that begins with the organization of data that becomes information when processed through the brain.  When ordered, recorded, further analyzed and related to other pieces of data, it becomes very special information that we call knowledge. Further ordered and related to other knowledge, it couples together as insights.Then, insights begin to couple together as wisdom.

Each in their own way start very simply. When the results render simple-but-deep-and-insight, we call it wisdom.

We need more wisdom when it comes to the Big Bang Theory and the Standard Model. To see if we can find it, we return to our integrated view of the universe affectionately called, The Big Board - little universe (BiBo-lu).

If we assume that there has to be a better way, where might we start?

How about starting with the singularities of the base Planck units?

From the Planck Length to the Observable Universe and the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe, we go from the smallest length and shortest duration to their logical current status. From these singularities we somehow run up to today's complexities.

How? What steps are in between the singularity and the complexity?

A most simple, rather elementary mathematical function is to add something together.  If you continue to add things together in an orderly fashion you begin to observe patterns... Take the Fibonacci curve. Simple addition and within just a few steps we begin to see magic and complexity.

Double something. Multiply and divide by 2. Children learn this procedure very early in elementary school. It too is magical. Just look at the most simple cell. It divides, then divides again.  Within ten steps, there are over 1000 cells. Within twenty steps there are over one million cells and in another ten steps over a billion, then a trillion, quadrillion and quintillion just within sixty doublings.

So, it behooves us to look closely at the first ten steps.

Close-cubic packing or cubic close-packed (ccp).

it has a deep, inherent, abiding simplicity:
Background story: http://smallbusinessschool.org/page3010.html 
Charts: http://smallbusinessschool.org/page3054.html
What is not to like about 201+ exponential notations
(aka  clusters, domains, doublings, groups, layers, sets, and steps)?
http://smallbusinessschool.org/page2870.html
http://smallbusinessschool.org/page3000.html

It puts STEM education on rocket thrusters.

Notes:  There are three levels of freedom built into the structure of the universe.
The first is Pi.  Anytime you see a number that doesn't stop, it's freedom of expression. We are given a sense of openness. Eternity.  Universality.

The next is the little  7.38 degree gap within the simple construction of the Pentastar of five tetrahedrons.

The third, where there is a dynamic that literally puts Good and Evil on polar opposites combines the two.

Process and Reality

4. Imputation, hypostatization, hypothesization, and instantiation are all things that we do to make sense of the universe and life. With just these first three steps, the universe could become a very different place. There is a play between that ways we believe and the ways that we see.  Though the study of concepts, the formation of language and ideas, has been a major academic study, it has been an abstraction with weak boundaries and parameters.  Within these three steps, the human mind takes its place on the continuum and  to be a profound interaction between Observing the many ways that we interact with it, after all we are within it, opens up the scientific method to a wider ranger of possibilities. Currently the operative word in science is to hypothesize. The process of hypothesizing, sometimes referred to as hypothesization simple means to make an assumption, a guess based on observations, suppositions based on what might seem to be random thoughts. Yet, some thoughts weigh heavier than others

Day 2

The Infinite And The Nature of Perfection

4. This little universe model must now be tested by the history of philosophy, logic, mathematics, and physics/strong>.. It has a very long way to go before it addresses questions about duality, finite and infinite sets... The finite becomes a subset of the infinite is not a perfect dual.


Computation, hypostatization, hypothesization, and instantiation are all things that we do to make sense of the universe and life. With just these first three steps, the universe could become a very different place. There is a play between that ways we believe and the ways that we see.  Though the study of concepts, the formation of language and ideas, has been a major academic study, it has been an abstraction with weak boundaries and parameters.  Within these three steps, the human mind takes its place on the continuum and  to be a profound interaction between Observing the many ways that we interact with it, after all we are within it, opens up the scientific method to a wider ranger of possibilities. Currently the operative word in science is to hypothesize. The process of hypothesizing, sometimes referred to as hypothesization simple means to make an assumption, a guess based on observations, suppositions based on what might seem to be random thoughts. Yet, some thoughts weigh heavier than others

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_finite_simple_groups


Physicist John Archibald Wheeler (1911-2008) has often
been quoted as saying,

"It  is  my  opinion  that  everything

must  be  based on  a  simple  idea."


He then goes on to say, "And it is my opinion that this idea, once we have finally discovered it, will be so compelling, so beautiful, that we will say to one another, yes, how could it have been any different."


What is simplicity?

Definitions (partial listing):
1. Not hard to understand or do.
2. Having few parts
3. Not complex or fancy.  Plain, basic, not special or unusual.
4. The fundamental and straightforward nature of something.
5. A group with no proper subgroup.
6. Composed of a single element, not a compound.

Cultural Flavoring:
KISS:  "Keep It Simply-Simple."
Camber Flavoring
Everything starts simply.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simplicity

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor

"Either science is irrational [in the way it judges theories and predictions probable] or the principle of simplicity is a fundamental synthetic a priori truth." (Swinburne 1997).  mailto:richard.swinburne@oriel.ox.ac.uk

http://users.ox.ac.uk/~orie0087/

http://lawsofsimplicity.com/

http://www.maedastudio.com/index.php

http://www.fastcompany.com/56804/beauty-simplicity 

Examples of complexity

""The Schwarzschild radius appearing in the spheristatic solution of the Einstein equations as the radius of the singular surface determined by the gravitational potential given by the time-time component of the covariant, symmetric, 2nd rank, gravimetric tensor -- (formula 1) -- which relates any mass m to a length ls (m) at the singularity by (formula 2),thus relating mass linearly to length, while the reduced Compton wavelength relates any mass unit to a length unit by Compton wavelength."

              1
Formula 1:    g44 = -----------------------
            ( 1 - (G0/c2) (m/r) )

Formula 2: ls(m) = (G0/c2) m

Key words:

1. The Schwarzschild radius