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Did A Quiet Expansion Precede A Big Bang?

Document: A working, first draft. Please comment. Please share your insights.
  Question: About the title question, it is difficult to know; however, a better question might
                   be, "Do the dynamics of a quiet expansion deflate the Big Bang theory?"

     Author: Bruce Camber, September 4, 2014
     Sequel: June 4, 2016. This Quiet Expansion Challenges the Big Bang

Concepts, Ideas, Theories:  If you think about it, most of the world's people have never heard of the Big Bang theory (Reference 1 - the cosmological model, not the TV series). Of those who know something about it, a few of us are somewhat dubious, "How can the entire physical universe have originated from a single point about 13.8 billion years ago?" It seems incomplete, like there are major missing parts of the story.

To open a dialogue about this pivotal scientific theory is the reason for this article. And, if we are successful, all of us will have re-engaged our ninth grade geometry classes and we will begin to ask a series of "what if" questions about the origins of this universe.

Big Board - little Universe. Some of you are aware of our work within several high school geometry classes (Reference 2) to develop a model called the Big Board-little universe (Reference 3). Possibly you even know a little about the 201+ to 205.1 base-2 exponential notations from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe. It is a study that informally began on December 19, 2011, so most of us have only begun to explore the inner workings of each of the 201+ notations.

 More Working Articles on UniverseViews:

Articles that will always be in process:
•    Ethics-Morals-Values: Is there an inherent Goodness
     within Science, Business, and Religion?
Finite or Infinite: Is That The Question?   Part II
•    Paradigm Shift: Most-simple, integrated UniverseView
•    Planck: Length-Time Chart     All Five Basic Units Chart
•    Order-Continuity: Is There Order In The Universe?

•   Simplicity: Everything Starts Most Simply... 
•   Tiling and Tessellating the Universe
•    Who, What, When, Where and Why:
       What's happening here?

A working overview and Table of Contents

Take a tour of the Big Board-little universe and its Universe Table:
A short introduction

#1: The Planck Length
#2: The Range or Scale of the Universe
#3: Just by the width of a hair
#4: Discover your child within
#5: From caveats to mea cuplas
#6: Water, water everywhere
#7: Transition to the Human Scale
#8: An Unknown Section of the Universe
#9: Transition to the Large Scale Universe
#10: The Observable Universe

Because we believe all things start most simply, the first 60+ notations are potential keys for understanding a rather different model of our universe. These notations (also referred to as doublings, domains, clusters, groups, layers, and steps) have not yet been studied  per se by our academic communities (Reference 4). The best guess at this time is that the range of our elementary or fundamental particles begins somewhere between the 60th and the 67th notations.

The simple mathematics (Reference 5)  and the simple geometries are a given; the interpretation is wide open.

This little article is an attempt to engage people who are open to new ideas to look at those first 60+ notations. What kinds of what-if questions could we ask? Can we speculate about how geometries could grow from a singularity to a bewildering complex infrastructure within and throughout those first 60+ domains, doublings, layers, notations, and/or steps? What if in these very first steps, there is an ultra-fine structure of our universe that begets the structure of physicality? What would a complexification of geometries give us? Might we call it a quiet expansion? Though we have always been open to suggestions, questions and criticisms, we are now also asking for your insight and help.

Updates of both models are being prepared whereby those first 60+ notations of the Big Board-little universe begin to get some projections to study and debate.  Also, another version of the Universe Table (Reference 6) is in preparation to emphasize every notation from 1 to 65.  Also, at the time this article was introduced, we initiated a chart of base-2 exponential notations of time from the Planck Time to the Age of the Observable Universe side-by-side with our chart for the Planck Length to the Observable Universe. And, to make this study a bit more robust, we also projected a time to add the other three basic Planck Units -- mass, electric charge and temperature.  The very-first rough draft of that work was completed in February 2015.]

Big Bang Up. Most people start time with the Big Bang. Is there a possibility that there are events between Planck Time and the bang (or whatever sounds there were when things became physical somewhere between notations #63 to 67)?

In their 2014 book, Time in Powers of Ten, Natural Phenomena and Their Timescales, Gerard 't Hooft and Stefan Vandoren of Utrecht University (Reference 7),  start at their study of the Big Bang at one second. A lot can happen in one second.  There would have been as many as 44 base-10 notations as many as 142 base-2 notations. (or doublings, domains, clusters, groups, or steps).  We are doing a fact check to see if these two authors say anything about those notations from Planck Time.  It appears that they were unaware of such notations until we pointed them out to them.

The first time period of interest to us is the first 20± base-10 notations which would be the first 67 base-2 notations. What happens between the Planck Units and the emergence of the elementary particles?  These are real durations in time.  A lot can happen.  We will be exploring this small-scale universe in much greater detail. By the 60th doubling there are quintillions-upon-quintillions of vertices with which to create many possible models. Also, in light of the Big Bang, there is an abundance of information from all the years of research since the concept was first proposed in 1927 by Georges Lemaître.

Steven Weinberg, the author of The First Three Minutes (Reference 8), begins his journey through the origin of the universe at the 1/100th of a second mark. Our hypothesis is that we can mathematically go back to a much, much smaller duration. We believe that we should start at the Planck Time and multiply it by 2. And, just as the fermion within notation 66 would be the size of a small galaxy compared to the Planck Length, we anticipate that 1/100 of a second between notations 136 and 137 would represents a proportionately large gaps in time.   Starting one's analysis so late misses key critical activities and correlations with the other four basic Planck Units (Reference 8b).

We've just started to see what the numbers can tell us.

A lot of pre-structuring of the universe could be quietly happening within such a duration (1/100th of a second). Using our most metaphorical, speculative thinking, one could imagine that the actual event within those first sixty notations was a gentle, symphonic unfolding, fully homogeneous and isotropic. * Although we should embrace all the key elements of today's theory, we should also be constantly asking, "What kinds of geometries would be required within each of the first 60 notations to render these effects?"

Perhaps the universe and our future belong to the geometers.

So, this article is to empower all of us to find the best geometers around the world to engage the Big Board-little universe model within what we call "the really-real small scale universe." Of course, some of the work has already been done within the study of spheres, tilings, and combinatorial geometries.

If you would like to comment politely, please drop me a quick note ( Thanks.

* homogeneous Having the same property in one region as in every other region
    isotropic Having the same property in all directions.


Endnotes, Footnotes, and References:

1 A Wikipedia summary of the basic Big Bang theory. As you will see within this Wikipedia article, the basic theory has been highly formulated with a fair amount of scientific evidence.  If our rather-naïve, quaint-little challenge to that model is ever to catch some traction, it will have to account for the results of every accepted scientific measurement about the Big Bang theory that has been thoroughly replicated.

2 Is There Order In The Universe? There are nine references within this article and each opens to a page that has been written since the first class on December 19, 2011.

3 This image of the Big Board-little universe is Version 2.0001.

4 This article is our very first attempt to provide a somewhat academic analysis of the work done to date. It was rejected by several academic journals so it was first released within WordPress, then the LinkedIn blog pages, and finally re-released right here.

5 The debate within Wikipedia about the importance of base-2 exponential notation resulted in their rejection of the original article.  It was judged to be "original research."  We thought that judgment was just a little silly.  The concepts were all out there; these articles were just to organize that data.

6 A WordPress blog page for our emerging UniverseView.

7 This article about the book, Time in Powers of Ten by Gerard t'Hooft and Stefan Vandoren, is the most comprehensive that I could find at this time. If you happened to find a better review, please advise us.

8 An online version of the entire book, The First Three Minutes by Steven Weinberg. There are many reviews, yet this one provides a little counterweight. Weinberg also wrote the forward to Time in Powers of Ten. Gerard t'Hooft (1997) and Steven Weinberg (1979) are Nobel laureates.

The charts showing the correlations between Planck Units at the 136th and 137th notations is here.

9 A WordPress article about very small and very big numbers. There is our initial discussion about the first 65 notations.
© 2016, Small Business School, Bruce Camber

About the author

In 1970 Bruce Camber began his initial studies of the 1935 Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) thought experiment. In 1972 he was recruited by the Boston University School of Theology based on (1) his research of perfected states in space-time through work within a think tank in Cambridge, Massachusetts, (2) his work within the Boston University Department of Physics, Boston Colloquium for the Philosophy of Science, and (3) his work with Arthur Loeb (Harvard) and the Philomorphs. With introductions by Victor Weisskopf (MIT) and Lew Kowarski (BU), he went to CERN on two occasions, primarily to discuss the EPR paradox with John Bell. In 1979, he coordinated a project at MIT with the World Council of Churches to explore shared first principles between the major academic disciplines represented by 77 peer-selected, leading-living scholars. In 1980 he spent a semester with Olivier Costa de Beauregard and Jean-Pierre Vigier at the Institut Henri Poincaré focusing on the EPR tests of Alain Aspect at the Orsay-based Institut d’Optique. In 1994, following the death of another mentor, David Bohm, Camber re-engaged simple interior geometries based on several discussions with Bohm and his book, Fragmentation & Wholeness. In 1997 he had made  molds made to produce thousands of the tetrahedron and octahedron. These are used in the models throughout these discussions. In 2002, he spent a day with John Conway at Princeton to discuss the simplicity of the interior parts of the tetrahedron and octahedron. In 2011, he challenged a high school geometry class to use base-2 exponential notation to follow the interior structure of basic geometries from the Planck Length and to the edges of the Observable Universe.